Beginner (7) Negative form / Present tense / Particles

Beginner (7) Negative form / Present tense / Particles

Hi everyone, it’s Hanako!

Did you think the verb congugation we learned last week was difficult?

I think the most difficult thing to learn Japanese is “Verb conjugation”, though, what do you think?

Japanese who were born in Japan don’t learn verb conjugation.

だから、私も日本語の先生を始めるまでは、動詞活用にRu-verbやU-verb などのルールがあるなんて、実は知りませんでした。
So, actually I did not know there are verb conjugation rule such as Ru-verb or U-verb until I started teaching Japanese.

Japanese grade 1 students memorize hiragana and katakana in six months to one year.

While memorizing it, they study stories that the Japanese government choose,s however, they naturally memorize verb conjugation for each verb without noticing rules.

However, Japanese learners will never be able to master Japanese without memorizing the rule.

It’s interesting to learn languages!


Have you mastered how to conjugate verbs?
Let’s review for few min.

Q) Differentiate the types of verbs and then convert them into their stem (masu) form.

見る (to look)
Miru- Ru-verb – ます

食べる (to eat)
Taberu- Ru-verb – 食べます

行く (to go)
Iku- U-verb – 行きます

する (to do)
Irregular – ます

Then, let’s learn how to convert masu form into negative form.

<How to form “Negative Form”>

Drop す, add せん


Note: We will learn how to negate dictionary form (casual form) later.

<Present Tense>

(1) Habitual actions
Person habitually or regularly engages in these activities


I often eat Japanese foods.

(2) Future actions
Person will, or is planning to, perform these activities in the future.

Michael will play golf tomorrow.

(Note): Although it’s “Present Tense”, it’s future action.
There is no word like “will” in Japanese, so you have to judge if it is about present or future according to the sentence.


Nouns used in sentences generally must be followed by particles, which indicate the relation that the nouns bear to the verbs.

(1) を

Particle を indicates “direct objects,” that are directly involved in or affected by, the event.
In Japanese, を always comes right after the direct object in a sentence, followed by a verb at the end.
The particle を can be written in rōmaji as o or wo. It is pronounced more like o so it might be better to remember this one.

I eat chocolate.

I buy new cell phone.

I read newspapers.

(2) で

Particle で(de) indicates the place at which an action or event takes place. It can be used like “at” or “in” is used in English.

I will read books in the library.

I will watch a movie at Shibuya.

(3) に

に (ni) and へ (e) can be used to indicate destination or direction. They are translated as to in English.
The particle に means (1) the goal toward which things move (2) the time at which an event takes place.
(1) the goal toward which things move

I am going to Tokjyo.

(2) the time at which an event takes place.

I always have dinner at 7pm.

(4) へ (e)

The particle へ, too, indicates the goal of movement. Often に and へ are interchangeable for (1) the goal toward which things move, but not for (2) the time at which an event takes place.

The Particle へ is written using the hiragana which is pronounced he in other words, but it is pronounced e as a particle.
(1) the goal toward which things move

I am going to Tokjyo.

Note: Particle へ sounds more formal than particle に when you use it for (1) the goal toward which things move.

Let’s practice!

Do you often cook?

No, I don’t cook.

Mary will watch a movie at Shibuya tomorrow.

Hanako teaches Japanese language in Japan.

Hanako goes to Japan.

Michael wakes up at 8am everyday.

Please watch this “Homework Club” video below to practice what we have learned!


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