Beginner (7) Negative form / Present tense / Particles

7/28 or 29 Beginner (7) Negative form / Present tense / Particles

みなさんこんにちは、花子です!
Hi everyone, it’s Hanako!

先週の動詞活用の勉強は難しかったですか?
Did you think the verb congugation we learned last week was difficult?

私は、日本語勉強の中で一番難しいのは動詞活用ではないかと思っているのですが、みなさんはどう思いますか?
I think the most difficult thing to learn Japanese is “Verb conjugation”, though, what do you think?

日本で生まれた日本人は、動詞活用は勉強しないんですよ。
Japanese who were born in Japan don’t learn verb conjugation.

だから、私も日本語の先生を始めるまでは、動詞活用にRu-verbやU-verb などのルールがあるなんて、実は知りませんでした。
So, actually I did not know there are verb conjugation rule such as Ru-verb or U-verb until I started teaching Japanese.

日本人の小学校一年生は、ひらがな、カタカナを半年から一年で覚えます。
Japanese grade 1 students memorize hiragana and katakana in six months to one year.

その間に、日本の政府が選んだお話を読むのですが、動詞活用のルールがあることにも気がつかずに、ひとつひとつの単語の動詞活用を自然に覚えています。
While memorizing it, they study stories that the Japanese government choose,s however, they naturally memorize verb conjugation for each verb without noticing rules.

でも、日本語学習者はルールを覚えなければ日本語を習得することはできません。
However, Japanese learners will never be able to master Japanese without memorizing the rule.

言語の勉強って、面白いですね!
It’s interesting to learn languages!

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Have you mastered how to conjugate verbs?
Let’s review for few min.

Q) Differentiate the types of verbs and then convert them into their stem (masu) form.

見る (to look)
Miru- Ru-verb – ます

食べる (to eat)
Taberu- Ru-verb – 食べます

行く (to go)
Iku- U-verb – 行きます

する (to do)
Irregular – ます

Then, let’s learn how to convert masu form into negative form.

<How to form “Negative Form”>

Drop す, add せん

Ex.)
見まー見ません
食べまー食べません
行きまー行きません
しまーしません

Note: We will learn how to negate dictionary form (casual form) later.

<Present Tense>

(1) Habitual actions
Person habitually or regularly engages in these activities

Ex.)

I often eat Japanese foods.
わたしは、よく日本食を食べます。

(2) Future actions
Person will, or is planning to, perform these activities in the future.

Michael will play golf tomorrow.
マイケルは、明日ゴルフをする。

(Note): Although it’s “Present Tense”, it’s future action.
There is no word like “will” in Japanese, so you have to judge if it is about present or future according to the sentence.

<Particles>

Nouns used in sentences generally must be followed by particles, which indicate the relation that the nouns bear to the verbs.

(1) を

Particle を indicates “direct objects,” that are directly involved in or affected by, the event.
In Japanese, を always comes right after the direct object in a sentence, followed by a verb at the end.
The particle を can be written in rōmaji as o or wo. It is pronounced more like o so it might be better to remember this one.

Ex.)
(わたしは)チョコレートを食べます。
I eat chocolate.

(わたしは)新しい携帯を買います。
I buy new cell phone.

(わたしは)新聞を読みます。
I read newspapers.

(2) で

Particle で(de) indicates the place at which an action or event takes place. It can be used like “at” or “in” is used in English.

マックで本を読みます。
I will read books in the library.

渋谷で映画を見ます。
I will watch a movie at Shibuya.

(3) に

に (ni) and へ (e) can be used to indicate destination or direction. They are translated as to in English.
The particle に means (1) the goal toward which things move (2) the time at which an event takes place.
(1) the goal toward which things move

Ex.)
今日、東京に行きます。
I am going to Tokjyo.

(2) the time at which an event takes place.

私は、いつも7時に夜ご飯を食べます。
I always have dinner at 7pm.

(4) へ (e)

The particle へ, too, indicates the goal of movement. Often に and へ are interchangeable for (1) the goal toward which things move, but not for (2) the time at which an event takes place.

The Particle へ is written using the hiragana which is pronounced he in other words, but it is pronounced e as a particle.
(1) the goal toward which things move

Ex.)
今日、東京へ行きます。
I am going to Tokjyo.

Note: Particle へ sounds more formal than particle に when you use it for (1) the goal toward which things move.

練習しましょう!
Let’s practice!

(1)
Do you often cook?
よく、料理しますか?

No, I don’t cook.
いいえ、料理しません。

(2)
Mary will watch a movie at Shibuya tomorrow.
メアリーさんは、明日、渋谷で映画を見ます。

(3)
Hanako teaches Japanese language in Japan.
花子は、日本で日本語を教えます。

(4)
Hanako goes to Japan.
花子は日本に行きます。
花子は日本へ行きます。

(5)
Michael wakes up at 8am everyday.
マイケルは、毎日8時に起きます。

Please watch this “Homework Club” video below to practice what we have learned!

 

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